Erich Heckel (1883-1970) was a German expressionist artist and printmaker, and one of the founders of The Bridge. Born in Dobern, Sax in 1883, he studied architecture at the Dresden Institute of Technology and became an artist mainly by self-taught. In 1905, he founded the Bridge Society with Ernst Ludwing Kirchner and others. The meaning of the word Bridge Society is to unite all German artists against corrupt academic painting and sculpture, to build an aesthetic that connects both tradition and modern sensibilities and forms, thus creating a place between the artist and a tangible and powerful source of spirituality. Build a bridge between them. Influenced by Edvard Munch, Vincent van Gogh and others, he pursued the expression of inner needs in art. Compared to his peers, however, he seems to have maintained a rigorous, cool and restrained style. Most of his works are tragic themes. The suffering images of the sick, the clown, and the lonesome fill his images with pain, sorrow and unease. He used square or angular shapes, a geometry that seems to be influenced by Cubism. However, unlike Cubism, he is not out of the need for structure, but to convey a certain strong emotion and reveal the complex psychology of the characters. His characters look haggard and depressed, as if trapped in some hopeless and inextricable state by the weight or pain of long-term life. Rough lines and dull colors enhance the expressiveness of his works. During World War II, Hekel could not escape the doom of Nazi persecution. His studio was raided, many engravings were destroyed and confiscated, and the Nazi authorities declared his works to be degenerate art and banned from exhibiting. After World War II, Heckel taught at the Karlsruhe Academy of Fine Arts in Germany, where he died in 1970.
Two man at a table
Erich Heckel, 1912
Portrait of a Man (Männerbildnis)
Erich Heckel, 1919
In 1952, IBM launched the IBM 701 computer, a large-scale computer for business and scientific research from IBM, and the world's first mass-produced computer.
"Big Blue" IBM (International Business Machines Corporation)
Operation console of the IBM 701, 1952
Logic circuit made of transistors in BM 701
On March 28, 1955, Thomas Watson Jr. was featured on the cover of "Time" magazine. This huge computer weighing about 9.3 tons was an invention that completely changed the world for people at that time. Time magazine wrote: "In just 12 machine hours, a computer will produce 1,200 cost statements that would normally take 1,800 people to complete. "The IBM 701 brought computers previously limited to military use to civilian use, It has greatly improved the efficiency of social operation and contributed to the development of economy and science.